How Old Is St Andrews Golf Course: A Complete History

Welcome, friend! Picture this: Scotland, early 15th century, golfers teeing off for the very first time at what is now known as the Old Course at St Andrews.

Yes, you read that right. St Andrews Old Course, the oldest golf course in the world, has been hosting golf games for over 600 years!

Want to dive deeper into its captivating history? Stick around, and I'll take you on a journey through time that's sure to impress even the most knowledgeable golf enthusiasts.

Unraveling the Early History of the Old Course

Can you imagine the excitement and uncertainty that might have filled the air as golfers first stepped onto the links at St Andrews in the early 15th century?

With a layout vastly different from what we know today, let's take a closer look at the infancy of this legendary course.

When and how golf was first played at St Andrews

Let's rewind the clock, back to the early 15th century, to the origin of the Old Course at St Andrews.

Golf as a sport was blossoming in Scotland, and the first golfers at St Andrews were early pioneers of this challenging game.

The golfers of that era probably wouldn't recognize the modern version of the sport – with its strictly manicured greens and fairways – but their love for the game, no doubt, would be just as passionate.

This was a time before golf balls and clubs as we know them.

The early golfers at St Andrews played with wooden clubs and balls made of feathers and leather.

Can you picture that? They struck their featheries along the rugged, wind-swept links that would become the oldest golf course in the world.

Despite the rudimentary equipment, these golfers established a tradition of golfing at St Andrews that's been unbroken for over 600 years.

Overview of how the course originally had 22 holes

Here's an interesting fact: the Old Course didn't always have the 18 holes we know and love today.

Back in the day, the course was a 22-holer! As strange as that might sound now, that was the norm back then.

The layout included eleven holes, each of which was played twice, in and out, summing up to a total of 22.

This arrangement had a lot to do with the natural topography of the links.

The holes were set based on the available land, following the undulating dunes and depressions.

There was no architect planning the course; instead, Mother Nature was the designer, crafting a layout that was shaped by the wind and the sea.

Standardizing the 18-Hole Round

With the course’s early history fresh in our minds, let's dive into an era that changed golf forever.

The Old Course, from its original 22 holes, underwent a transformation that not only impacted St Andrews but set a precedent for golf courses around the world.

How the Society of St Andrews Golfers influenced the structure of modern golf courses

It was 1764, and the Society of St Andrews Golfers – which would later be known as the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews – decided to make a significant change.

They reduced the number of holes on the Old Course from 22 to 18.

This decision wasn't made on a whim, but rather, it was a well-considered solution to a practical problem.

You see, some holes on the course were considered too short by the standards of the day, and so it was decided to combine them.

This move had far-reaching consequences.

By cutting down the number of holes to 18, St Andrews inadvertently standardized the structure of golf courses across the globe.

As the sport grew and new courses were built, they followed this new 18-hole standard set by the Old Course.

It's pretty cool to think that this one decision in a corner of Scotland would influence the game of golf as we know it today.

The significance of 18 holes and the arrangement of nine holes out and nine holes back

So, now we know why the Old Course at St Andrews has 18 holes, but what about their arrangement? Why do we play nine holes out and nine holes back?

Well, the answer is simple and again rooted in practicality.

The early links courses, including the Old Course, were laid out on narrow strips of land.

To maximize the use of available land, holes were arranged along the strip, typically along the coastline, and once you reached the end, you would turn around and play the holes in reverse order to get back to the clubhouse.

This arrangement wasn't just a clever use of space. It added an extra layer of complexity to the game.

With coastal winds coming into play, the direction of the wind could drastically change the difficulty of each hole, depending on whether you were playing out or coming back.

Evolving Layout Over Time

The Old Course at St Andrews, much like the game of golf itself, has never been static.

It has adapted and evolved over the centuries, retaining its historic charm while meeting the demands of the modern game.

Let's dive into some key changes that have shaped the course layout we see today.

Separation of the first and 17th greens

In 1863, a significant alteration took place on the Old Course.

The first green, which up until that point had been combined with the 17th green, was separated.

This move was prompted by an increase in play and the resulting congestion at the shared green.

The separation of the first and 17th greens had a profound impact on the course.

For one, it improved the flow of play, reducing wait times and confusion among golfers.

It also had an aesthetic impact, creating a more streamlined look and a distinct starting point for the round.

But perhaps most importantly, this change set the stage for what has become a signature feature of the Old Course: its unique layout of double greens.

Current layout: Double and single greens

If you've ever had the chance to play the Old Course or even just look at its layout, you've likely noticed its distinct feature – double greens.

Except for the 1st, 9th, 17th, and 18th holes, every hole on the Old Course shares a green with another – the outgoing hole paired with the incoming hole.

This results in seven large double greens, with the number of the holes that share a green summing to 18.

For example, the 2nd hole (going out) shares a green with the 16th (coming back in).

The same pattern follows for the 3rd and 15th, 4th and 14th, and so on.

This unique arrangement, which was gradually developed after the separation of the 1st and 17th greens, adds a special character to the Old Course, and a strategic complexity that golfers won't find on many other courses.

As a result of this unique layout, the Old Course's greens are some of the largest and most undulating in the game, presenting golfers with challenging putts and an exciting variety of pin positions.

The design is also a nod to the Old Course's rich history, a reminder that this is not a typical golf course – it's a living piece of golf's heritage.

Birth of the St Andrews Golf Club

Now that we've journeyed through the evolution of the Old Course, let's turn our attention to the formation of a significant institution: the St Andrews Golf Club.

Founded in 1843, its establishment marked another crucial milestone in the rich history of golf at St Andrews.

The Establishment of the St Andrews Golf Club and Its Historic Importance

The mid-19th century was a period of growth and development for the game of golf.

With the Old Course having been in play for centuries, golfers were banding together to form clubs, creating communities of enthusiasts who organized competitions and worked to further develop the game.

It was in this thriving atmosphere that the St Andrews Golf Club was born in 1843.

While the Club is separate from the Society of St Andrews Golfers (later the Royal and Ancient Golf Club), the two organizations shared a common love for golf and a special relationship with the Old Course.

The St Andrews Golf Club became home to many of the local golfers who played the Old Course regularly, cultivating a golfing culture that would have a lasting impact on the sport.

One of the St Andrews Golf Club's key contributions to golf was its commitment to broadening the sport's appeal.

The Club held competitions, organized social events, and worked to attract new players to the game.

It created a sense of community and camaraderie that epitomized the spirit of golf, and this legacy continues to this day.

Interestingly, unlike many golf clubs around the world, the St Andrews Golf Club doesn't own the course where its members play.

But rather than being a disadvantage, this unique arrangement allowed the Club to focus on its mission of promoting the game and fostering a love of golf among its members, while the stewardship of the Old Course was left in the capable hands of the St Andrews Links Trust.

Modern Day Arrangement

As we journey from the birth of the St Andrews Golf Club to the present day, it's fascinating to see how both the club and the Old Course have adapted and thrived.

Let's explore how the club operates today without owning a course, the range of golf courses available in St Andrews, and the role of the St Andrews Links Trust.

How the club functions today without owning a golf course

The St Andrews Golf Club holds a unique position among golf clubs around the world – it doesn't own a golf course.

But far from being a disadvantage, this arrangement has allowed the club to focus on its core mission: fostering a community of golf lovers and promoting the sport.

Members of the club have access to seven public courses in St Andrews, including the historic Old Course.

While the club organises competitions and social events, the responsibility of maintaining and managing these courses lies with the St Andrews Links Trust.

This partnership has been beneficial for all parties involved, creating a vibrant golfing community in St Andrews.

The seven public golf courses in St Andrews

St Andrews is a golfing paradise, home to seven public courses that cater to players of all skill levels.

These include the Old Course, the New Course, the Jubilee Course, the Eden Course, the Strathtyrum Course, the Balgove Course, and the Castle Course.

Each offers a unique golfing experience, but all share the rugged beauty and rich history of St Andrews.

The crown jewel is, of course, the Old Course.

Its iconic double greens, the Swilcan Bridge on the 18th hole, and the notorious Hell Bunker are just a few of the features that make it a dream destination for golfers worldwide.

Despite its status and history, the Old Course remains a public course, open to all who wish to challenge themselves on its hallowed fairways.

Overview of the St Andrews Links Trust

The stewardship of these courses is in the capable hands of the St Andrews Links Trust.

Established in 1974 by an Act of Parliament, the Trust is a charitable organization tasked with maintaining and preserving the seven golf courses in St Andrews.

The Trust not only ensures the courses are kept in top condition, but it also manages the public lottery for tee times on the Old Course, ensuring fair access to this historic course.

Additionally, the Trust runs three clubhouses, a golf academy, and four shops, providing a comprehensive golfing experience for locals and visitors alike.

By separating the stewardship of the courses from the responsibilities of the golf clubs, St Andrews has created a golfing environment that respects and honours the history of the sport while ensuring its future.

It's a living, breathing testament to golf's enduring appeal, a place where every golfer can feel a part of the sport's rich tradition.


In a nutshell, the Old Course at St Andrews, the world's oldest golf course, stands as an enduring monument to the game of golf.

From its early 15th-century origins and unique 18-hole standardization, through its ever-evolving layout, to the unique relationship it shares with the St Andrews Golf Club and St Andrews Links Trust, it continues to offer a unique golfing experience steeped in tradition and history.

The course and the club together exemplify the evolution, tradition, and spirit of the game of golf, welcoming enthusiasts from around the globe to be part of this extraordinary legacy.

Whether you're a seasoned golfer or a novice, a visit to St Andrews is like stepping into the heart of golf's rich and exciting past, while also experiencing its vibrant present and looking forward to its promising future.